Welcome to Science at Your Doorstep!

What’s this blog all about? Visit my About page to find out.

Think this blog looks familiar? The name “Far Beyond the Stars” might ring a bell. Same blog, different url. Welcome back! For more information on this change, click here.

If this is your first time here, welcome aboard! Feel free to take a look around!

Wondering when I’m going to get around to posts besides astronomy? Probably sometime in mid-November.

By all means, feel free to follow! You’ll find the option at the top of the sidebar. To follow via email, enter your email address and my posts will be delivered straight to your inbox.

I’ve moved the updates on the changes I’m making to this blog to my About page.

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Back in Business

Hi everyone,

First, I apologize for posting so sporadically throughout this month. You didn’t get quite the content you expected from me. I can plead illness for two weeks of the month, but I have no excuse for the other half. Well, no good excuse.

Here’s the good news.

Over the past month, I may not have written many posts, but I’ve bought resources for writing posts and I’ve even taken a huge chunk out of next year’s blogging budget. I now own textbooks on astronomy, chemistry, biology, physics, and general earth science.

I still have 30-ish posts in the works for astronomy. These drafts are from before this blog got its name changed to “Science at Your Doorstep.” I intend to get those done first. I’ll write as many a day as possible to get through those quickly.

After that, it’ll be on to other things.

I don’t have a posting plan. I was thinking of just picking up one of these textbooks and writing a bunch of posts, the same way I did for astronomy. I’d stop partway through, just as I’m doing for astronomy, and do something else.

I do have a plan to cover everything in all five of these textbooks, and I’ll post once a day as long as school allows.

Once I’m through these textbooks, I’ll start buying other resources for other science topics this blog will eventually cover, but that won’t be for months yet.

For now…I hope you enjoy the influx of posts to come!


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The Balmer Thermometer

hot star.jpg

How hot would you say this star is? Take a wild guess.

Well…sorry, but I’m going to stop you for a moment just to make sure we’re all using Kelvins. The Kelvin scale is like the Celsius scale, except water freezes at 273 K instead of 0℃. 0 K is absolute zero, which is purely theoretical and doesn’t exist.

Now can you guess this star’s temperature?

I’ll give you another hint. This is a real photograph, so it’s impossible for this star to be any star other than our sun. How hot do you think our sun is?

Okay…I’ll tell you. It’s about 5800 K, which—for those of you unfamiliar with Kelvins—is about 5527℃. Kinda crazy, huh?

Next question. How do we know this? I mean, it’s not like we stuck a thermometer in the sun’s surface and actually measured it, right? Continue reading

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The Atomic Spectrum


Astronomers know that if white light passes through a prism and is bent, it’s separated out into its component colors—the colors of the rainbow.

Astronomers also know that when light interacts with atoms, the building blocks of the universe, the atoms absorb photons of light and reemit them—but in a different direction.

Put these two bits of knowledge together, and astronomers now have everything they need to understand spectra (the plural for spectrum).

spectrum is something I’ve covered in previous posts. In astronomy, it means the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation spread out so we can analyze them individually. And it’s an astronomer’s most valuable tool.

So, what exactly is a spectrum, and how can we use it to analyze radiation from space and learn more about the universe? Continue reading

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Stars and Radiation


Stars are hot.

Really hot. Hot enough to have energy to spare for their planets. If our star wasn’t hot, we couldn’t live on Earth. And our star isn’t even particularly hot for a star. It’s a middle-aged star of low mass, so it’s relatively cool compared to other stars.

You might also notice that stars aren’t all the same color. There are redder stars and bluer stars and more whitish stars.

We know stars are hot. They’re also bright. And they’re different colors. But how does that all translate to radiation—and how can we see it? Continue reading

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Atoms and Radiation

Pillars of Creation.jpg

Everything we know about space comes from radiation.

Now wait just a moment here. That statement explains how astronomy is such a successful field of science—it’s based entirely on the information we can glean from radiation, after all. But how does that make sense?

I mean, it’s one thing to study radiation. It’s quite another thing to study matter, the “stuff” in the universe. How does one have anything to do with the other?

Well…that’s where atoms come in. Radiation does, in fact, have a lot to do with the “stuff” it comes from. And if it weren’t for that basic principle, astronomy as a science wouldn’t work.

Thankfully for astronomers, it does. So what’s the secret, then? What does radiation have to do with matter? Continue reading

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How Atoms Work

atom photo.jpg

Have you ever seen something like this?

I’m going to venture a wild guess and say you haven’t, since scientists have only recently been able to take this kind of image. I learned about it in my biology class this semester, and the professor said that it was a landmark achievement.

You’re looking at an atom.

Yes, that’s right. You’re looking at a single, microscopic building block of matter.

Let me give you an idea of just how small this is. Millions of the smallest atom in the universe can fit lined across the diameter of a single pinhead.

But I’ll ask you another question. If I showed you an image like the one below, would you immediately think, “atom”? Continue reading

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Types of Atoms


Does this look familiar?

It might, or it might not. If it does, you might recognize it as the periodic table of the elements—more often known as simply the “periodic table.” It’s an ingenious way to organize elements that has worked for scientists for quite some time.

To fully appreciate the ingenuity of the periodic table, I’d have to take you through a few chemistry lessons. Never fear, I have every intention of doing so—later. For now, though, I just want to address enough of the world of atoms to talk about stellar spectra.

That just means the spectrums we get from stars, by the way. (Spectra is plural for spectrum.) And that means…well…we’ll talk about it later. Let’s talk about the different types of atoms first.

Atoms are the building blocks of the universe. Which means there must be different types. But what are they? Continue reading

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The Building Blocks of the Universe


“The Building Blocks of the Universe.” When you put it that way, atoms sound less like a topic specifically for a chemistry class and more like something astronomers might discuss.

They really are. I’ve got a fantastic reason to include atoms under astronomy, and its name is stellar spectra.

We’ve encountered stellar spectra before in these astronomy posts. When I wrote about the spectrograph, an instrument astronomers use to study data, I talked about spectral lines. I also promised we’d come back to elaborate on that later.

We’re not actually going to talk about the spectrograph in this post. I’m saving that for another time. For now, I’m going to cover atoms in a little more detail.

That way, we’ll have a better understanding of how they interact with light later on—and that will help us understand the spectrograph. Continue reading

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Cosmic Rays

cosmic rays.jpg

Cosmic rays remain, for the most part, a cosmic mystery.

But then, what about the universe doesn’t still remain partially shrouded in mystery?

Cosmic rays are radiation, but they’re not electromagnetic. That is, they’re not on the electromagnetic spectrum.

So, what are they? Continue reading

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Infrared & High-Energy Astronomy


You probably recognize this image. You see something like it whenever you look up at the sky. Some days are clearer than others—some, you might even see a completely blue sky—but regardless, you know that this is an image of our atmosphere.

But do you know just how much your atmosphere does for you?

We’ll talk about how it protects you from space rocks later on. For now, consider the energy from our own sun. The sun doesn’t just send visible light our way—it operates in all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Some of those wavelengths are harmful, like gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet radiation. Others, like infrared radiation, microwaves, and radio waves, are perfectly fine.

The atmosphere doesn’t really pick and choose which wavelengths get through to the surface. It blocks out some radiation it doesn’t need to. At least it protects us from the harmful wavelengths.

But that’s bad news for astronomers, because those wavelengths still contain useful information about the universe.

So how to we capture and analyze them? Continue reading

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